TRAINING NEEDS

        Training Needs Assessment of the farmers and rural youths in Jaintia Hills District of Meghalaya was conducted by the Krishi Vigyan Kendra (KVK), Jaintia Hills in collaboration with the State Department of Agriculture, Meghalaya.


        Four villages representing the different Agro –Ecological Situations under the five Blocks in the district were identified and based on production potential of the different farming systems were drawn up for inclusion in the present study. On consultation with the extension functionaries of the state agricultural departments, local leaders etc. a list of farmers representing different categories were prepared for each village. From the individual list of farmers from selected village, five farmer respondents were randomly selected which made twenty farmers for the district.


        Data collection from randomly selected respondents was made using retested ‘Structured Schedule’ through personal interview method. For this purpose, an interview schedule was constructed for data collection from respondents in the light of the objectives of the study. The selected respondents were personally interviewed and their responses were recorded in the schedule. Utmost care was taken to make the respondents understand about the objectives of the study and clarified their doubts.


        A list of 11 major components/thematic areas was prepared Viz., Crop production, Plant protection, Soil Health and fertility management, Afro-forestry, Horticulture, Animal Husbandry, Fisheries, On farm production of Inputs, Home Science/Women empowerment, Agri engineering, Capacity Building and Group Dynamics and Vocational Training for Rural Youth. Under each major component, specific and relevant training needs items were collected through review of literature, discussion with state extension functionaries, progressing farmers etc and incorporated in the interview schedule based on. The schedules were administered to the indented respondents for data collection. In this regard, the farmers were requested to give a tick (√) in one of the three response categories (Viz. Very important, Important and Not Important) provided against the identified specific items under each major component based on their perceived needs for providing training to them for further improvement in their farming system.


        The farmer’s responses were collected in 3- point continuum scale such as Very Important (VI), Important (I) and Not Important (NI) by assigning scores 3,2 and 1 respectively. The results were calculated as weighted score for each of the thrust area identified for the training:-


Weighted Score (WS) = (No. of VI x 3) + ( No. of I x 2) + (No. of Ni x 1)
Total No. of VI + I + NI


        Weighted Scores in the range of 2-3 were ranked within each discipline and the first five rankings were identified as the training needs of the farmers of the district.

Table 1: Weighted Score (1-3 Scale) and Rank of the training needs of the farmers of Jaintia Hills District of Meghalaya in the discipline of Crop Production

Thematic areaJaintia Hills District, Meghalaya (n = 20)
Crop ProductionVIINIWSRank
Weed Management
Resource Conservation Technologies61222.23
Cropping Systems71032.23
Crop Diversification12442.41
Integrated Farming81112.352
Water Management6952.056
Seed Production6591.87
Nursery Management8662.14
Integrated Crop Management71212.32
Fodder Production44121.68
Production of Organic Inputs7942.154

Table: 2 Weighted Score (1-3 Scale) and Rank of the training needs of the farmers of Jaintia Hills District of Meghalaya in the discipline of Plant Protection

Thematic areaJaintia Hills District, Meghalaya (n = 20)
Plant ProtectionVIINIWSRank
Integrated Pest Management18202.91
Integrated Disease Management17302.852
Bio-control of pest and diseases71302.353
Production of biocontrol agents and biopesticides81112.353

Table: 3 Weighted Score (1-3 Scale) and Rank of the training needs of the farmers of Jaintia Hills District of Meghalaya in the discipline of Soil Health and Fertility Management

Thematic areaJaintia Hills District, Meghalaya (n = 20)
Soil Health and Fertility ManagementVIINIWSRank
Soil Fertility Management12802.61
Soil and Water Conservation11722.452
Integrated Nutrient Management91012.42
Production and use of organic inputs51232.13
Management of problematic soils51142.054
Micro nutrient deficiency in crops5961.956
Nutrient use efficiency5871.95
Soil and water testing5961.956

Table: 4 Weighted Score (1-3 Scale) and Rank of the training needs of the farmers of Jaintia Hills District of Meghalaya in the discipline of Horticulture

Thematic areaJaintia Hills District, Meghalaya (n = 20)
HorticultureVIINIWSRank
Vegetables Crops
Production of Low Volume and High Value Crops68624
Off-season vegetables11812.51
Nursery Raising101002.51
Exotic vegetables like Broccoli61222.23
Export potential vegetables6591.855
Grading and standardization2991.656
Protective cultivation(Ex. Green House, shade net)10912.452
Fruits
Training and Pruning55101.755
Layout and management of orchards6681.92
Cultivation of fruits73101.854
Management of young plants/orchards4881.83
Rejuvenation of old orchards8752.151
Export potential fruits37101.656
Micro irrigation systems of orchards45111.656
Plant Propagation Techniques53121.656
Ornamental Plants
Nursery management5871.91
Management of potted plants27111.553
Export potential of Ornamental Plants53121.652
Propagation Techniques of Ornamental Plants42141.53
Plantation Crops
Production and Management Technology54111.71
Processing and Value Addition44121.62
Tuber Crops
Production and Management Technology41061.91
Processing and Value Addition4971.852
Spices
Production and Management Technology7942.151
Processing and Value Addition510522
Medicinal and Aromatic Plants
Nursery Management21171.252
Production and Management Technology31161.351
Post Harvest Technology and Value Addition21171.252

Table: 5 Weighted Score (1-3 Scale) and Rank of the training needs of the farmers of Jaintia Hills District of Meghalaya in the discipline of Livestock Production and Management

Thematic areaJaintia Hills District, Meghalaya (n = 20)
Livestock production and managementVIINIWSRank
Dairy Management76724
Poultry Management7852.12
Piggery Management9382.053
Rabbit Management34131.55
Disease Management16401.81
Feed Management76724
Production of quality animal products15141.356

Table: 6 Weighted Score (1-3 Scale) and Rank of the training needs of the farmers of Jaintia Hills District of Meghalaya in the discipline of Home Science/Women Empowerment

Thematic areaJaintia Hills District, Meghalaya (n = 20)
Home Science/Women EmpowermentVIINIWSRank
Household food security by kitchen gardening and nutrition51142.051
Gardening25131.456
Design and development of low/minimum cost diet21081.74
Designing and development for nutrient efficiency diet28101.65
Minimization of nutrient loss in processing21171.753
Gender mainstreaming through SHGs21171.753
Storage loss minimization techniques3891.74
Value Addition28101.65
Location specific drudgery reduction technologies24141.48
Income generation activities for empowerment of rural women55101.754
Rural Crafts26121.57
Women and Child Care5871.92

Table: 7 Weighted Score (1-3 Scale) and Rank of the training needs of the farmers of Jaintia Hills District of Meghalaya in the discipline of Agril. Engineering

Thematic areaJaintia Hills District, Meghalaya (n = 20)
Agril. EngineeringVIINIWSRank
Installation and maintenance of micro irrigation systems81112.351
Use of plastics in farming practices37101.654
Production of small tools and implements5781.852
Repair and maintenance of farm machinery and implements31071.83
Small scale processing and value addition21351.852
Post Harvest Technology31071.83

Table: 8 Weighted Score (1-3 Scale) and Rank of the training needs of the farmers of Jaintia Hills District of Meghalaya in the discipline of Fisheries.

Thematic areaJaintia Hills District, Meghalaya (n = 20)
FisheriesVIINIWSRank
Integrated Fish Farming61042.11
Crab breeding and hatchery management37101.654
Crab fry and fingerling rearing02181.155
Composite Fish Culture14151.33
Hatchery management and culture of fresh water prawn02181.16
Breeding and culture of ornamental fishes43131.552
Portable plastic crap hatchery11181.155
Pen culture of fish and prawn01191.057
Shrimp farming11181.155
Edible oyster farming02181.16
Pearl culture01191.057
Fish processing and value addition13161.254

Table: 9 Weighted Score (1-3 Scale) and Rank of the training needs of the farmers of Jaintia Hills District of Meghalaya in the discipline of Production of inputs at site

Thematic areaJaintia Hills District, Meghalaya (n = 20)
Production of inputs at siteVIINIWSRank
Seed production54111.76
Planting material production41151.955
Bio-agents production31071.87
Bio-pesticides production81112.352
Bio-fertilizer production11812.51
Vermi-compost production51502.253
Organic manures production412424
Production of fry and fingerlings22161.311
Production of bee-colonies and wax sheets13161.2512
Small tools and implements28101.68
Production of livestock feed and fodder32151.410
Production of fish feed25131.459

Table: 10 Weighted Score (1-3 Scale) and Rank of the training needs of the farmers of Jaintia Hills District of Meghalaya in the discipline of Agro-forestry

Thematic areaJaintia Hills District, Meghalaya (n = 20)
Agro-forestryVIINIWSRank
Production technologies22161.32
Nursery management31161.351
Integrated Farming Systems31161.351
Other(Pl.specify)

Table: 11 Weighted Score (1-3 Scale) and Rank of the training needs of the farmers of Jaintia Hills District of Meghalaya in the discipline of Capacity building and group dynamics

Thematic areaJaintia Hills District, Meghalaya (n = 20)
Capacity building and group dynamicsVIINIWSRank
Leadership development10732.351
Group dynamics24141.44
Formation and management of SHGs9922.351
Mobilization of social capital17121.453
Enterpreneurial development of farmers/youth7852.12
WTO and IRP issues23151.355

Table: 12 Weighted Score (1-3 Scale) and Rank of the training needs of the farmers of Jaintia Hills District of Meghalaya for Rural Youth

Thematic areaJaintia Hills District, Meghalaya (n = 20)
Rural YouthVIINIWSRank
Mushroom Production61042.13
Bee-keeping28101.68
Integrated Farming81112.352
Production of organic inputs51142.053
Planting material production31251.94
Vermiculture10912.451
Sericulture31161.855
Protected cultivation of vegetables crops61042.13
Commercial fruit production52131.68
Repair and maintenance of farm machinery and implements41151.954
Nursery management of horticultural crops31341.953
Training and pruning of orchards2991.657
Value addition41151.954
Production of quality animal products15141.3510
Dairying43131.559
Sheep and goat rearing75121.796
Quail farming15141.3510
Piggery31251.94